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Distinguish aims, goals, objectives and strategies.

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 16-03-2011

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When you have something you want to accomplish, it is important to set aims, goals and objectives including strategies for meeting them. Aims without goals and objectives may be very difficult to meet. Equally goals without objectives can never be accomplished while objectives without goals will never get you to where you want to be. All aspects can be achieved with good strategies and all these terms are separate but related and help us to accomplish our plans. This paper aims at making distinctions amongst the following terms or concepts; aims, goals, objectives and strategies. This distinction will be based on the knowledge gained from the course and other literatures available.

In everyday life we tend to use the terms aims, goals, objectives or strategies interchangeably. Within the educational lexicon, for the past twenty years curriculum scholars, planners and administrators have been trying to standardize terms so that they refer to very specific curricular components. The following definitions are broadly accepted by groups trying to standardize curricular terms so that they are not confusing to readers and users. Aims are long term overall results you expects to see at the end of the project or programme. Goals are a means through which aims are met. They are limited in terms of longation as compared to aims that you want to accomplish at the end. Objectives are concrete attainments that can be achieved by following a certain number of steps in meeting the goals and aims. Goals and objectives are often used interchangeably, but the main difference comes in their level of concreteness. Objectives are very concrete, whereas goals are less structured. The diagramme below show the structure that is followed in arranging aims goals and objectives.

The diagramme below shows a clear distinction of the terms aims, goals and objectives. These are followed by the distinction of strategies following the table.
Definition Example
Aims Aims are general statements that provide direction or intent to educational action. Aims are usually written in amorphous terms using words like: learn, know, understand, appreciate, and these are not directly measurable. Aims may serve as organizing principles of educational direction for more than one grade. Indeed these organizing principles may encompass the continuum of educational direction for entire programs, subject areas or the district. Students will understand and become proficient at identifying the different types of spoken English.
Goals Goals are statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims. Goals too may encompass an entire program, subject area, or multiple grade levels. They may be in either amorphous language or in more specific behavioral terms. Students will be able to identify and use American slang terms and phrases.
(This example is a subset of the aim above, but the area becomes more specific. This goal moves from generic spoken English to the more detailed area of American slang. One verb used is still identify, although this goal does not specify how students are to identify, and the verb use has been added. The objectives related to this goal should specify how the students will identify and use new knowledge.)
Objectives Objectives are usually specific statements of educational intention which delineate either general or specific outcomes.
There are advantages and disadvantages to different types of objectives.
• Behavioral objectives
o Holistic objectives
• Nonbehavioral objectives
o Problem solving objectives
o Expressive activities that lead to expressive outcomes.
Objectives can be written in a number of ways. Currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive, affective, and physical.
Samples:
• Cognitive: Students will identify and list 5 slang terms they have heard from their peers.
• Affective: Student will choose 3 of the most offensive slang terms from a list developed by the entire class.
• Physical: Students will create expressive gestures to go with their favorite slang terms.
strategies Strategy refers to a plan of action designed to achieve a particular aim, goal or objective. The word is of military origin, deriving from the Greek word strategos, which roughly translates as general.

A strategy is a scheme: an elaborate and systematic plan of action
When I enter class, I will ask students verbally to get a pen or pencil and a paper or book and the instructions as highlighted in aims, goals and objectives above. While they are writing, I will have to check exactly what they are doing to ensure that they are doing the right thing.

Quinn says “a strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole. A well-formulated strategy helps to marshal and allocate an organization’s resources into a unique and viable posture based on its relative internal competencies and shortcomings, anticipated changes in the environment, and contingent moves by intelligent opponents.” All types of businesses require some sort of strategy in order to be successful; otherwise their efforts and resources will be spent haphazardly and likely wasted. Although strategy formulation tends to be handled more formally in large organizations, small businesses too need to develop strategies in order to use their limited resources to compete effectively against larger firms.
Formulation of an effective business strategy requires managers to consider three main players—the company, its customers, and the competition which according to Kenichi Ohmae in his book The Mind of the Strategist. These three players are collectively referred to as the strategic triangle. “In terms of these three key players, strategy is defined as the way in which a corporation endeavors to differentiate itself positively from its competitors, using its relative corporate strengths and weaknesses to better satisfy customer needs,” Ohmae explained. Participative strategic development also may help companies to retain key employees, because employees gain satisfaction by being able to direct and see the results of their efforts. “Retaining these highly skilled and trained professionals will become increasingly important as knowledge has more and more to do with the company’s ability to build and maintain a competitive advantage,” Wall and Wall noted. Finally, participating in strategy formulation may enable managers to make better use of their time. This benefit is particularly helpful because time is always limited as companies try to do more with less people in meeting their aims, goals and objectives. Their strategies or course of action is taken by highly effective and efficient professionals to meet their expectation in a limited period of time.
It can be concluded that aims are what we intend to see as the overall result. Goals are alittle specific that aims. Objectives are more specific that aims and goals and strategies look at the line of action or the small bits of things to be done in order to meet the aims, goals and the objectives.

REFERENCES
Mintzberg, Henry, and James Brian Quinn. The Strategy Process: Concepts and Contexts. Prentice-Hall, 1992.
Ohmae, Kenichi. The Mind of the Strategist in metting aims, goals and objectives: Business Planning for Competitive Advantage. Penguin, 1982.
Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press, 1980.
Wall, Stephen J., and Shannon Rye Wall. “The Evolution (Not the Death) of Strategy.” Organizational Dynamics. Autumn 1995.

Importance of needs assessment in alleviating poverty

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 16-03-2011

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Most projects on poverty alleviation fail because they are not based on adequate needs assessment. This paper aims at demonstrating how an individual would evolve a poverty alleviation project based on sound needs assessment. The paper will firstly explore the definition of key terms in the question like needs assessment and poverty followed by the main body and then end with a conclusion.
By definition, Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and cloth a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation, (United Nations).
Needs assessment is a process for determining and addressing needs, or “gaps” between current conditions and desired conditions, often used for improvement in individuals, education/training, organizations, or communities. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency. The idea of needs assessment, as part of the planning process, has been used under different names for a long time. In the past 50 years, it has been an essential element of educational planning.Over the past four decades, there has been a proliferation of models for needs assessment with dozens of models to choose from.
Poverty alleviation refers to attempts in trying to reduce poverty levels in a nation. There has been a number of attempts in trying to alleviate poverty. However, these attempts were not based on proper needs assessment of that particular community. There is need to use a sound needs assessment whereby before the project is embarked on, there is need for a team of researchers to go into the field to find out the main problem or the needs and expectation of the people at the glass root. While its true that poverty is manifested at different as it is a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services. It includes a lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of participation in decision making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries, loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets, (World Summit on Social Development). There is need for researchers first to establish what the people at the place where poverty need to be reduced really needs and what can be done about them.
In the needs assessment process, researchers will be looking for things like helping the communities to meet nutritional requirements, to escape avoidable disease, to be sheltered, to be clothed, to be able to travel, and to be educated.
Needs assement process should be well defined with specific areas which needs to be addressed. People are living in poverty if their income and resources (material, cultural and social) are so inadequate as to preclude them from having a standard of living which is regarded as acceptable by Irish society generally. As a result of inadequate income and resources people may be excluded and marginalised from participating in activities which are considered the norm for other people in society. Considered the “father of needs assessment,” Roger Kaufman first developed a model for determining needs defined as a gap in results. This particular emphasis in results focuses on the outcomes (or ends) that result from an organizaton’s products, processes, or inputs (the means to the ends). Kaufman argues that an actual need can only be identified independent of premature selection of a solution (wherein processes are defined as means to an end, not an end unto themselves). To conduct a quality needs assessment according to Kaufman, you first determine the current results, articulate the desired results, and the distance between results is the actual need. Once a need is identified, then a solution can be selected that is targeted to closing the gap. Kaufman’s model in particular identifies gaps in needs at the societal level, what Kaufman calls “Mega” planning, along with gaps at the Macro (or organizational) and Micro level.
Kaufman articulated 13 specific societal-level needs for which all organizations are partially responsible (based on data collected from countries around the world), all of which contribute ultimately to self-sufficiency and these needs need to be taken to consideration by researchers before the poverty alleviation project starts. Researchers needs assessment according to Kaufman may be in the following areas:
War and/or riot and/or terrorism; Shelter; Unintended human-cased changes to the environment, including permanent destruction of the environment and/or rendering it non-renewable; Murder, rape, or crimes of violence, robery, or destruction of property; Substance abuse; Disease; Pollution; Starvation and/or malnutrition; Child abuse; Partner/spouse/elder abuse; Injuries and accidents, including transportation, home, and business/workplace; Discrimination based on irrelevant variables including color, race, creed, sex, religion, national origin, age, and location and Poverty.
Some researchers recommends the use of models for establishing needs assessment processes in the targets communities. Apart from Kaufman’s thirteen model of establishing needs assessment, other models define needs assessment as a process for determining and addressing needs, or “gaps” between current conditions and desired conditions or gaps between current and desired products. Leigh, et al. conducted a comparison of the major needs assessment models in 2000 based on the level of organizational planning each addressed and the direction of linkages between the levels of planning. Models like the chain models help in alleviating poverty. Shafloot has his contribution to the needs assessment by adding a new unique model called Needs Chain Model which is composed of aligned horizontal and virtual processes in which there are four different kinds of needs that describe and identify the ultimate performance goal, solutions, and what might affect these solutions. It can be illustrated as performance, instruments, and conscious and unconscious needs. Also, it has four vertical factors that consider organizational and individual needs, causes, and level of objectivity for all needs.
It is clear here that in alleviating poverty, the Needs Chain Model provides tools that assist organizations in prioritizing resources and identifying areas that require improvement. Figure 1 identifies four main types of need that must be considered, for example, for determining the organization’s goals and the instrument needs with full understanding of the unconscious needs. Another factor determines the objectivity level.
In alleviating poverty, there is really need to asses the demands, needs and aspirations of the target community. There should be a deliberate inquiry or systematic inquiry of training needs within the researchers for the purposes of identifying priorities and making decisions, and allocating finite resources in a manner consistent with identified program goals and objectives.
Since poverty is in the community, there is need for community needs assessment. Gupta et al. developed a model focused at the community level they term community needs analysis. Their model involves identifying material problems/deficits/weaknesses and advantages/opportunities /strengths, and evaluating possible solutions that take those qualities into consideration. Note that this is different from Kaufman’s Mega model that focuses on identifying societal-level needs.
Community needs assessment involves assessing the needs that people have in order to live in: “an ecologically sustainable environment, a community that maintains and develops viable social capital, a way that meets their own economic and financial requirements and a manner that permits political participation in decisions that affect themselves. Community needs assessment as a technique thus forms a part of an Ecologically Sustainable Community Economic Development (ESCED). It forms a first step in any project that aims to secure or alleviating poverty in a particular community:
Ecological enhancement: minimizing ecological impact or ameliorating any ecological damage; Social vitality: building a community that meets all the social and human needs of its members; Economic resilience: “shock-proofing” local “green” business enterprises as much as possible; Political participation in ways that ensure the participation of people in political decisions that affect them.
Community needs assessment can really help alleviate poverty within the members and among those target communities. Since needs assessment is a process that is used throughout education, government, and the private sector as a way of generating information that can be useful for solving some problem. The idea of needs assessment is hardly new; it has been used, under different names, for millennia as part of the planning process. Certainly, in the past 50 years or so, needs assessment has been, and continues to be, a cornerstone of educational planning at all levels.
A recent search for information on “needs assessment” using Google as a search engine, yielded some 413,000 references. Many of the sites offer very detailed descriptions of what needs assessment “is” and the steps required to undertake one. The purpose of this page on ADPRIMA is to distill much of this into a practical, straightforward description of the fundamental ideas of needs assessment. With that in mind, let’s begin.
Researchers who want to alleviate poverty need to distinguish needs and wants to the target community where this poverty alleviation is to take place. It seems reasonable to assert that wants trump needs. This is an opinion, but I think it is fundamental to the entire process. I suppose it comes down to a way of perceiving how meaning is derived from our choice and use of words and phrases.
We humans “need” things because of our wants. The things we need are comprised of physical objects such as food and shelter, as well as processes, such as root canals and haircuts. We also have come to “need” information such as the percent of students scoring at a particular level, or the total of charitable deductions for income tax purposes. As human beings, we also have emotional and psychological needs. Regardless of what we deem to be needs, they are all incontrovertibly linked directly to our wants. We need things either to happen or not happen because of what we want. We need certain conditions because of our wants. Abraham Maslow, (1908-1970) described the hierarchy of needs (being and deficit) that all humans strive to satisfy or to ameliorate. Regardless, the position here is that based on our wants, if something is “needed,” it means we must have it, must get it, must obtain it. It is not a difficult concept. In some cases, such as the deficit needs described by Maslow, in order to obtain what we want, we may actually “need” less of something. Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life.
Wants are sort of a priori transactions. We want one thing or one condition or another simply because we do. Our wants do not necessarily have to be justified. I want a red car, because I like red. I want to finish a report because it is important. Regardless of what our wants are, and they can be, to an outside observer, quite irrelevant or very important, our wants provide the criteria for determining what we need in order to satisfy them.
For needs assessment in poverty alleviation can be traced back in the history of poverty. Before the industrial revolution, poverty had been mostly accepted as inevitable as economies produced little, making wealth scarce. In Antwerp and Lyons, two of the largest cities in western Europe, by 1600 three-quarters of the total population were too poor to pay taxes. In 18th century England, half the population was at least occasionally dependent on charity for subsistence. In modern times, food shortages have been reduced dramatically in the developed world, thanks to agricultural technologies such as nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and new irrigation methods. Also, mass production of goods in places such as China has made what were once considered luxuries, such as vehicles or computers, inexpensive and thus accessible to many who were otherwise too poor to afford them. Rises in the costs of living make poor people less able to afford items. Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than richer people. As a result, poor households and those near the poverty threshold can be particularly vulnerable to increases in food prices. For example, in late 2007 increases in the price of grains led to food riots in some countries. The World Bank warned that 100 million people were at risk of sinking deeper into poverty. Threats to the supply of food may also be caused by drought and the water crisis. Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields. Approximately 40% of the world’s agricultural land is seriously degraded. In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU’s Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. Health care can be widely unavailable to the poor. The loss of health care workers emigrating from impoverished countries has a damaging effect. For example, an estimated 100,000 Philippine nurses emigrated between 1994 and 2006. There are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than in Ethiopia.
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation might also want to look at issues of demography like overpopulation and lack of access to birth control methods drive poverty. The world’s population is expected to reach nearly 9 billion in 2040. However, the reverse is also true, that poverty causes overpopulation as it gives women little power to control giving birth, or to have educational attainment or a career. The unwillingness of governments and feudal elites to give full-fledged property rights in land to their tenants is cited as the chief obstacle to development. This lack of economic freedom inhibits entrepreneurship among the poor. New enterprises and foreign investment can be driven away by the results of inefficient institutions, notably corruption, weak rule of law and excessive bureaucratic burdens. Lack of financial services, as a result of restrictive regulations, such as the requirements for banking licenses, makes it hard for even smaller microsavings programs to reach the poor.
Illiteracy can be part of the needs assement techniques in the poverty alleviation process. It takes two days, two bureaucratic procedures, and k1,000,000 to open a business in Zambia while an entrepreneur in Zimbabwe might need K500,000 for business. All these facets need to be assessed. Similarly substance abuse, including for example alcoholism and drug abuse can consign people to vicious poverty cycles. Infectious diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis can perpetuate poverty by diverting health and economic resources from investment and productivity; malaria decreases GDP growth by up to 1.3% in some developing nations and AIDS decreases African growth by 0.3-1.5% annually. War, political instability and crime, including violent gangs and drug cartels, also discourage investment. Civil wars and conflicts in Africa cost the continent some $300 billion between 1990 and 2005. Eritrea and Ethiopia spent hundreds of millions of dollars on the war that resulted in minor border changes. Shocks in the business cycle affect poverty rates, increasing in recessions and declining in booms. Cultural factors, such as discrimination of various kinds, can negatively affect productivity such as age discrimination, stereotyping,[53] gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and caste discrimination.[54]
Max Weber and the modernization theory suggest that cultural values could affect economic success. However, researchers have gathered evidence that suggest that values are not as deeply ingrained and that changing economic opportunities explain most of the movement into and out of poverty, as opposed to shifts in values. Needs assessment should help researchers in determining and addressing needs, or “gaps” between current conditions and desired conditions, often used for improvement projects in education/training, organizations, or communities.
If an initial assessment conducted by the project team confirmed that there was a real need for a repository of media items about a certain state and things did not go well in sorting out the problem, the strategy need to be changed and this means that needs assessment were not not properly done.
Needs assessments are important in establishing poverty effects or levels of poverty in a target or particular community of concern. Hunger, disease, and less education describe a person in poverty. One third of deaths – some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day – are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people, most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990. Those living in poverty suffer disproportionately from hunger or even starvation and disease. Those living in poverty suffer lower life expectancy. According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are the single gravest threats to the world’s public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases. Every year nearly 11 million children living in poverty die before their fifth birthday. 1.02 billion people go to bed hungry every night. Poverty increases the risk of homelessness. There are over 100 million street children worldwide. Increased risk of drug abuse may also be associated with poverty. According to the Global Hunger Index, South Asia has the highest child malnutrition rate of the world’s regions. Nearly half of all Indian children are undernourished, one of the highest rates in the world and nearly double the rate of Sub-Saharan Africa. Every year, more than half a million women die in pregnancy or childbirth. Almost 90% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, compared to less than 1% in the developed world.
Women who have born children into poverty may not be able to nourish the children efficiently and provide adequate care in infancy. The children may also suffer from disease that has been passed down to the child through birth. Asthma and rickets are common problems children acquire when born into poverty.
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation needs to be carried even in eduction circles for the target community. Research has found that there is a high risk of educational underachievement for children who are from low-income housing circumstances. This often is a process that begins in primary school for some less fortunate children. In Zambian educational system, these children are at a higher risk than other children for retention in their grade, special placements during the school’s hours and even not completing their high school education. There are indeed many explanations for why students tend to drop out of school. For children with low resources, the risk factors are similar to excuses such as juvenile delinquency rates, higher levels of teenage pregnancy, and the economic dependency upon their low income parent or parents.Families and society who submit low levels of investment in the education and development of less fortunate children end up with less favorable results for the children who see a life of parental employment reduction and low wages. Higher rates of early childbearing with all the connected risks to family, health and well-being are majorly important issues to address since education from preschool to high school are both identifiably meaningful in a life. Poverty often drastically affects children’s success in school. A child’s “home activities, preferences, mannerisms” must align with the world and in the cases that they do not these students are at a disadvantage in the school and most importantly the classroom. Therefore, it is safe to state that children who live at or below the poverty level will have far less success educationally than children who live above the poverty line. Poor children have a great deal less healthcare and this ultimately results in many absences from the academic year. Additionally, poor children are much more likely to suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches, ear infections, flu, and colds. These illnesses could potentially restrict a child or student’s focus and concentration.
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation needs to be carried also in shelter or housing circles for the target community. Slum-dwellers, who make up a third of the world’s urban population, live in a poverty no better, if not worse, than rural people, who are the traditional focus of the poverty in the developing world, according to a report by the United Nations. Most of the children living in institutions around the world have a surviving parent or close relative, and they most commonly entered orphanages because of poverty. Experts and child advocates maintain that orphanages are expensive and often harm children’s development by separating them from their families. It is speculated that, flush with money, orphanages are increasing and push for children to join even though demographic data show that even the poorest extended families usually take. According to a UN report on modern slavery, the most common form of human trafficking is for prostitution, which is largely fueled by poverty. In Zimbabwe, a number of girls are turning to prostitution for food to survive because of the increasing poverty. In one survey, 67% of children from disadvantaged inner cities said they had witnessed a serious assault, and 33% reported witnessing a homicide. 51% of fifth graders from New Orleans (median income for a household: $27,133) have been found to be victims of violence, compared to 32% in Washington, DC (mean income for a household: $40,127).
Also there are also many effects of poverty closer to home. For example after dropping out of school children may turn to violence as a source of income i.e mugging people, betting during street fights etc…
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation needs to be carried out with care. Historically, poverty reduction has been largely a result of economic growth. The industrial revolution led to high economic growth and eliminated mass poverty in what is now considered the developed world. In 1820, 75% of humanity lived on less than a dollar a day, while in 2001, only about 20% do. As three quarters of the world’s poor live in the country side, the World Bank cites helping small farmers as the heart of the fight against poverty. Economic growth in agriculture is, on average, at least twice as effective in benefiting the poorest half of a country’s population as growth generated in non-agricultural sectors. However, aid is essential in providing better lives for those who are already poor and in sponsoring medical and scientific efforts such as the Green Revolution and the eradication of smallpox. In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber first suggested that cultural values could affect economic success, arguing that the Protestant Reformation led to values that drove people toward worldly achievements, a hard work ethic,[82] and saving to accumulate wealth for investment. The new religions (in particular, Calvinism and other more austere Protestant sects) effectively forbade wastefully using hard earned money and identified the purchase of luxuries a sin. Ian Vásquez, director of the Cato Institute’s Project on Global Economic Liberty, wrote that extending property rights protection to the poor is one of the most important poverty reduction strategies a nation could take. Securing property rights to land, the largest asset for most societies, is vital to their economic freedom. The World Bank concludes increasing land rights is ‘the key to reducing poverty’ citing that land rights greatly increase poor people’s wealth, in some cases doubling it. Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto has estimated that state recognition of the property of the poor would give them assets worth 40 times all the foreign aid since 1945. Although approaches varied, the World Bank said the key issues were security of tenure and ensuring land transactions were low cost. In China and India, noted reductions in poverty in recent decades have occurred mostly as a result of the abandonment of collective farming in China and the cutting of government red tape in India. However, ending government sponsorship of social programs is sometimes advocated as a free market principle with tragic consequences. For example, the World Bank presses poor nations to eliminate subsidies for fertilizer even while many farmers cannot afford them at market prices. The reconfiguration of public financing in former Soviet states during their transition to a market economy called for reduced spending on health and education, sharply increasing poverty. Trade liberalization increases the total surplus of trading nations. Remittances sent to poor countries, such as India, are sometimes larger than foreign direct investment and total remittances are more than double aid flows from OECD countries. Foreign investment and export industries helped fuel the economic expansion of fast growing Asian nations. However, trade rules are often unfair as they block access to richer nations’ markets and ban poorer nations from supporting their industries. Processed products from poorer nations, in contrast to raw materials, get vastly higher tariffs at richer nations’ ports. A University of Toronto study found the dropping of duty charges on thousands of products from African nations because of the African Growth and Opportunity Act was directly responsible for a “surprisingly large” increase in imports from Africa. However, Chinese textile and clothing exports have encountered criticism from Europe, the United States and some African countries.
Deals can also be negotiated to favor developing countries such as China, where laws compel foreign multinationals to train their future Chinese competitors in strategic industries and render themselves redundant in the long term. In Thailand, the 51 percent rule compels multinational corporations starting operations in Thailand to give 51 percent control to a Thai company in a joint venture.
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation needs to be carried also in infrastructure, and other circles for the target community. Investments in human capital, in the form of health, is needed for economic growth. Nations do not necessarily need wealth to gain health. For example, Sri Lanka had a maternal mortality rate of 2% in the 1930s, higher than any nation today. It reduced it to .5-.6% in the 1950s and to .06% today while spending less each year on maternal health because it learned what worked and what did not. Cheap water filters and promoting hand washing are some of the most cost effective health interventions and can cut deaths from diarrhea and pneumonia. Knowledge on the cost effectiveness of healthcare interventions can be elusive but educational measures to disseminate what works are available, such as the disease control priorities project. Human capital, in the form of education, is an even more important determinant of economic growth than physical capital. Deworming children costs about 50 cents per child per year and reduces non-attendance from anemia, illness and malnutrition and is only a twenty-fifth as expensive to increase school attendance as by constructing schools. UN economists argue that good infrastructure, such as roads and information networks, helps market reforms to work. China claims it is investing in railways, roads, ports and rural telephones in African countries as part of its formula for economic development. It was the technology of the steam engine that originally began the dramatic decreases in poverty levels. Cell phone technology brings the market to poor or rural sections. With necessary information, remote farmers can produce specific crops to sell to the buyers that brings the best price.
Such technology also makes financial services accessible to the poor. Those in poverty place overwhelming importance on having a safe place to save money, much more so than receiving loans. Also, a large part of microfinance loans are spent on products that would usually be paid by a checking or savings account. Mobile banking addresses the problem of the heavy regulation and costly maintenance of saving accounts.[8] Mobile financial services in the developing world, ahead of the developed world in this respect, could be worth $5 billion by 2012. Safaricom’s M-Pesa launched one of the first systems where a network of agents of mostly shopkeepers, instead of bank branches, would take deposits in cash and translate these onto a virtual account on customers’ phones. Cash transfers can be done between phones and issued back in cash with a small commission, making remittances safer.
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation should also look at how aid is being used in aparticular country in alleviating poverty. One of the proposed ways to help poor countries has been debt relief. Many less developed nations have gotten themselves into extensive debt to banks and governments from the rich nations and interest payments on these debts are often more than a country can generate per year in profits from exports. If poor countries do not have to spend so much on debt payments, they can use the money instead for priorities which help reduce poverty such as basic health-care and education. For example, Zambia began offering services, such as free health care even while overwhelming the health care infrastructure, because of savings that resulted from the rounds of debt relief in 2005.Efficient institutions that are not corrupt and obey the rule of law make and enforce good laws that provide security to property and businesses. Efficient and fair governments would work to invest in the long-term interests of the nation rather than plunder resources through corruption. Researchers at UC Berkeley developed what they called a “Weberianness scale” which measures aspects of bureaucracies and governments Max Weber described as most important for rational-legal and efficient government over 100 years ago. Comparative research has found that the scale is correlated with higher rates of economic development. With their related concept of good governance World Bank researchers have found much the same: Data from 150 nations have shown several measures of good governance (such as accountability, effectiveness, rule of law, low corruption) to be related to higher rates of economic development. The United Nations Development Program published a report in April 2000 which focused on good governance in poor countries as a key to economic development and overcoming the selfish interests of wealthy elites often behind state actions in developing nations. The report concludes that “Without good governance, reliance on trickle-down economic development and a host of other strategies will not work.”
Needs assessment in poverty alleviation should also eplore the possibility of empowering or the limited powers women have in those communities. Empowering women has helped some countries increase and sustain economic development. When given more rights and opportunities women begin to receive more education, thus increasing the overall human capital of the country; when given more influence women seem to act more responsibly in helping people in the family or village; and when better educated and more in control of their lives, women are more successful in bringing down rapid population growth because they have more say in family planning.Poverty is usually measured as either absolute or relative poverty (the latter being actually an index of income inequality). Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over time and between countries. The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US $1.25 (PPP) per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day (but note that a person or family with access to subsistence resources, e.g. subsistence farmers, may have a low cash income without a correspondingly low standard of living – they are not living “on” their cash income but using it as a top up). It estimates that “in 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day.” Six million children die of hunger every year – 17,000 every day. Selective Primary Health Care has been shown to be one of the most efficient ways in which absolute poverty can be eradicated in comparison to Primary Health Care which has a target of treating diseases. Disease prevention is the focus of Selective Primary Health Care which puts this system on higher grounds in terms of preventing malnutrition and illness, thus putting an end to Absolute Poverty. The proportion of the developing world’s population living in extreme economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. Most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. In East Asia the World Bank reported that “The poverty headcount rate at the $2-a-day level is estimated to have fallen to about 27 percent [in 2007], down from 29.5 percent in 2006 and 69 percent in 1990.” In Sub-Saharan Africa extreme poverty went up from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001which combined with growing population increased the number of people living in extreme poverty from 231 million to 318 million. In the early 1990s some of the transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia experienced a sharp drop in income.[133] The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in large declines in GDP per capita, of about 30 to 35% between 1990 and the trough year of 1998 (when it was at its minimum). As a result poverty rates also increased although in subsequent years as per capita incomes recovered the poverty rate dropped from 31.4% of the population to 19.6% The World Bank issued a report predicting that between 2007 and 2027 the populations of Georgia and Ukraine will decrease by 17% and 24% respectively. World Bank data shows that the percentage of the population living in households with consumption or income per person below the poverty line has decreased in each region of the world since 1990: Other human development indicators have also been improving. Life expectancy has greatly increased in the developing world since WWII and is starting to close the gap to the developed world. Child mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world. The proportion of the world’s population living in countries where per-capita food supplies are less than 2,200 calories (9,200 kilojoules) per day decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s. Similar trends can be observed for literacy, access to clean water and electricity and basic consumer items.
It can be concluded that needs assessment is done systematically and is the evaluation of current system and programmatic operations and projected needs. This evaluation is performed as part of the system development life cycle prior to design, and implementation. Evaluation of the requirements or demands for health services by a population or community. It help in determining goals, identifying discrepancies between optimal and actual performance, and establishing priorities for action. Related terms: Training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analysis as discussed in the paper. A needs assessment is a great way to do all of the analysis and design work for a project before committing to the full development phase. During this rigorous process, we meet with the client to discuss the site’s functionality and purposefully.

REFERENCES
Encarta Poverty definition”. Encarta Poverty definition. Encarta.msn.com. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?lextype=3&search=poverty. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
Krugman, Paul, and Robin Wells. Macroeconomics. 2. New York City: Worth Publishers, 2009. Print.
Jonathan Watts in Beijing (2007-12-04). “Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring”. London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/dec/04/china.business. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
“overpopulation?”. Henrygeorge.org. http://www.henrygeorge.org/popsup.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
Moore, Wilbert. 1974. Social Change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Parsons, Talcott. 1966. Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kerbo, Harold. 2006. Social Stratification and Inequality: Class Conflict in Historical, Comparative, and Global Perspective, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

http://www.wikipedia.com.

Typology of authority in accord with Weber, analyze the social political landscape of Zambia today.

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 16-03-2011

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The principle aim of this paper is to analyze the social political landscape of Zambia today using Weber’s typology of authority. The essay will start by exploring key term and then proceed to the main body before the conclusion is finally given.
Social political landscape refers to an objective view of looking at a certain matter or given locality. Landscape in the fine arts refer to a work in which the main subject is nature, in either a pure state or somewhat altered by man. The landscape as a genre reflects much of man’s world view, representing man’s various emotional and, sometimes, practical relationships with his surroundings. Weber’s typology of authority looks at the flow of authority like a chain of command.
The Social political landscape of Zambia today is clear and justified. If you are a Zambian and ardent follower of Zambian political dispensation, you will agree with me that it’s marred with minimalism, popularize, tribalism, nepotism and massive corruption, which seems to be normal. What an interesting scenario we are subjected to. On the part of the general populace; we have witnessed with dismay great passivity, apathy and ignorance of how the state works.
It’s from such a background that politicians seemingly thrive at the expense of an ignorant, passive and apathetic citizenry. Politicians are so comfortable that they need not to brace themselves to be at pains to explain what they have or intend to do for the people; for they are pretty sure that not many will understand what they do. As for the few who understand, they have chosen the path of passivity and indifference; perhaps it’s due to hopelessness-who knows?
This has encouraged some politicians to keep the general populace in total ignorance by enacting laws that do not promote a speed, proficient and quality education system. This is in the quest to remain in the corridors of power, which is a source of livelihood for many of them, if not all. They are damn afraid to leave politics, not that they have passion for the people, but of what is going to sustain their tummies thereafter. So in an attempt to stick to the so called comfort zone, they will do everything possible to please the powers that be. Bootlicking is now the order of the day in Zambian political dispensation. People do things unimaginable to people of their age just to hold on to a position. It’s a sad situation in that we daily experience people saying and doing things in their autonomy and right state of mind would dare not say or do, but because of fear of poverty at the expense of integrity.
And when it comes to Belonging or joining of political parties, this is another area marred with nepotism, tribalism, popularism and corruption. At the end of the day it all translates into politics of benefits, if it benefits you and your close relations, why worry about the common good? For such people common good or justice starts with them and ends right back with them. Some people join political parties based on tribal lines, as long as the top leader comes from the same tribe as theirs, its enough for them, policy direction is secondary if at all it matters. As for others, especially a group that is not sure on which political party to follow, end up supporting or aligning themselves with the popular political party regardless of what it stands for, as long as many people seem to support it and making the loudest noise during elections.
Worse still, when you hear some people say I love that party not because of the good policy direction, but they are mesmerized by the leader’s oratory skill. In such a case, what is important is not what the leader says but how the leader says it. It’s feared that running a country is denigrated merely to oratory skills and some perceived humor.
What worries most in this country is that you will find adults with many and big children brace and endure the sun at a political rally only to hear somebody somewhere at the podium opening his or her mouth just to waste good and precious hours talking about another person. And all you hear from the masses is not ridicule or disgust but shouts of affirmation to what the speaker is saying.
In Zambia, the political landscape of characterized by a number of things signs and symbols. In the broadest sense to incorporate the physical contours of the built environment, the aesthetics of form, and the imaginative reflections of spatial representations contribute to the making of politics is part of political landscape. Shifting through the archaeological, epigraphic, and artistic remains of early complex societies, this provocative and far-reaching book is the first systematic attempt to explain the links between spatial organization and politics from an anthropological point of view. There is a claim of authority in Zambia and a feeling that they have a legitimate right to expect willing obedience to their command as explained by weber who illustrates his use of the ideal type as an analytical tool and his classification of types of social action. Weber distinguished three main modes of claiming legitimacy. Authority may be based on rational grounds and anchored in impersonal rules that have been legally enacted or contractually established. This type is rational-legal authority, which has increasingly come to characterize hierarchical relations in modern society. Traditional authority, on the other hand, which predominates in pre-modern societies, is based on belief in the sanctity of tradition, of “the eternal yesterday.” It is not codified in impersonal rules but inheres in particular persons who may either inherit it or be invested with it by a higher authority and these are similar to what is being experienced in Zambia today. Charismatic authority, finally, rests on the appeal of leaders who claim allegiance because of their extraordinary virtuosity, whether ethical, heroic, or religious, George (1997), Blau (1963).
With regard to Zambia, it should be kept in mind that here, as elsewhere in his work, Weber was describing pure types; he was aware that in empirical reality mixtures will be found in the legitimation of authority. Although presidential domination in third world countries is based on a considerable extent on their charisma, elements of rational-legal authority remains in the citizens of the countries.
For Zambia, Weber’s typology of various forms of authority relations is important on several counts. Its sociological contribution rests more especially on the fact that Weber, in contrast to many political theorists, conceives of authority in all its manifestations as characteristic of the relation between leaders and followers, rather than as an attribute of the leader alone. Although his notion of charisma may lack rigorous definition, its importance lies in Weber’s development of the idea that the leader derives his role from the belief his followers have about his mission and this perception has been demonstrated in the political landscape of Zambia.
One would can describe Zambia today as a world in political turmoil, where the parliament and the leaders of the dominant power, politicians, are trading places in influencing people lives by overthrowing each other periodically. People are crying out for a new and concise guideline of how to govern their nation. Alongside with Weber there emerged one, John Locke, who introduced a unique and effective political theory. He based it on the most fundamental and natural right of the human being his freedom. Locke takes the concept of freedom to a plateau never attempted before, placing it as the very core of living in a civil and just society. Locke demonstrates flawlessly how freedom is essential to proper government by describing the contract between the ruler and the ruled, the inconveniences in the state of nature that just government rectifies, and elucidating that all mankind is inherently born free and equal. John Locke introduces an effective political theory where the people enter into a reversible contract with the government that they themselves erect, in order to protect their freedom.
The political landscape of Zambia is dominated by the hungriness of power and authority from those who want to rule others. A simple definition of power could be the ability both to demand that people do something, and to say how a thing should be done or organised. Authority, however, is where power is granted by consent; and when an individual or committee is said to have authority, the reason that justifies this authority is known as legitimacy. In general, the government has authority because it has legitimacy through: tradition, as Parliament has existed for hundreds of years; charisma, as many people may follow present president Rupiah Bwezani Banda through the strength and attraction of his personality; and democratically through the people, as they vote in elections for the MP or party they wish to form the government. An example of an organisation that has power but not necessarily authority would be the American embassy in Zambia, which exercise their power by sometimes using violence and force, or money, status, education or sex. In Liberal Democracies such as south africa, power is split into three types: legislative power, which is the power to make laws; executive power, which is the power to implement laws; and judicial power, which is the power to interpret laws.The two concepts of power and authority can be understood in different ways in the case of Zambia.
From the Zambian political landscape, we can also look at weber’s typology of authority from the decision making perspective or using power to prevent certain decisions or discussions from being made in Zambia. The distinctions made by Weber between different types of authority oppose those of many other political theorists due to the fact that his idea of authority was based on the characteristics of the relation between leaders and followers, rather than the attributes of the leader alone. Also, Luke’s theory believes that power only occurs when there is a conflict of interests, such the conflict between working class interests and middle/upper class interests. In this decision making process, power lies in the Government. Although traditional authority may be associated with pre – modern societies due to the undemocratic nature, Britain and many other countries have the tradition of a hereditary monarchy, which demands that a new monarch commands as much obedience and loyalty as the previous monarch commanded. The third and final dimension or ‘face’ of Lukes’ Marxist view on power is different from the above two; it believes people in positions of power have the ability to shape and manipulate desires of different social groups, Weber (1958), Spencer (1970). An example of this in practise would be the government proposing a law; it would be thoroughly debated in both chambers and in the Cabinet, and eventually the bill may become and Act. The statement ‘A has power over B to the extent that they can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do’ can define Lukes’ Marxist theory. Rational – legal authority depends upon a formal set of rules that give those who hold authority the right to command others. A social group may be persuaded to accept or wish for certain situations without realising that sometimes it is not for their benefit. The last type of authority defined by the functionalist is rational-legal authority. These two sociologist’s theories discuss the concepts of power and authority in three stages; Weber distinguished three main modes of claiming legitimacy, and Lukes derived a definition of power in three stages. Although this notion of charisma may lack a straight definition, its importance lies in Weber’s development of the idea that the leader derives his role from the belief that his followers have about his mission. Also, many people think that the Government’s use of referendums falls into the category of ‘non- decision making’ as they public feel that they are being involved with the running of the country and so democracy is increased whereas the Government is still in power as they are not obliged to follow the referendum’s decision. The same example applies: the Government could be accused of doing this in referendums as they sometimes hold them to make the public believe it is democratic when they are actually taking place for their benefit.
Using the typology of authority in accord with Weber, we can see the social political landscape of Zambia today in the different spheres of influence. For example, the legal or rational authority is rooted in rules that have been legally established. In legal or rational authority, a system of legal rules are use to guide all members of the group. This practice is followed by all levels of the hierarchy from the superiors to the subordinate. The persons appointed at the top are elected into that position by following legal procedures and are expected to follow the legal rules to limit their power. These legal rules usually develop over time as the needs of the group change.
This form of authority is most effective in modern corporate culture. The structure in place creates checks and balances amongst all levels so that one party does not venture off onto their own agenda. Policies are enacted to ensure that employees within the company adhere to methodologies created to guide that company’s performance and success.
Western world government is much known for their use of legal or rational authority. Having a structure in place that is based on laws to govern all hierarchical levels ensures that members are adhering to a concise format of governing.
Traditional authority is mainly based on traditions of the past. Groups under this structure feel that their guidance is based on the sanctity of age-old custom and influence. Unlike legal or rational authority, traditional authority is not governed by rules, but is usually inherited with historical ties. Traditional authority has existed around the world since the beginning of documented time.
A modern-day form of this authority still exists in Zambia, with the president elected in top control. However, the governing powers have since moved to legal or rational authority.
One could say that your typical traditional family encompasses traditional authority in that it is customary for the man of the house to provide the structure and guidance within that family.
For many years, businesses have been comprised of leaders put into place by their Fathers, relatives or close friends. We tend to still see this traditional authority in smaller companies in Zambia where there is little need for legal or rational authority in Zambia.
Charismatic authority is based on the idea that one is in a position of power due to his or her magnetism. That is, his or her charisma is a quality that is considered extraordinary. The collections of people that would consider this person to be their leader are at times called disciples or followers. These followers may consider their leader to be gifted with supernatural or superhuman powers or qualities. In reality, the true presence of these powers are irrelevant, it is the fact that the followers believe these qualities to be true is what is important. Devoted members are usually appointed into positions of power within this structure based on their own charisma and devotion to the person seen to be in charge.
Rupiah Bwezani Banda would be considered a leader with charismatic authority as he has political powers.
In Zambia’s political landscape with regard to typology of authority, it is clear that the influential sociologist Max Weber proposed a theory of authority that included three types. He pioneered a path towards understanding how authority is legitimated as a belief system. His essay “The three types of legitimate rule”, translated in English and published posthumously in 1958, is the clearest explanation of his theory. Spencer interpreted Weber’s theory to say that legitimate order and authority stems from “different aspects of a single phenomenon – the forms that underlie all instances of ordered human interaction”. There are two fundamental components of order, norms and authority. Spencer explained that “authority and norms represent polar principles of social organization: In the one case organization rests upon orientation to a rule or a principle; in the other instance it is based upon compliance to commands” (Spencer 1970: 124).
Weber’s three types of authority are traditional, charismatic, and legal-rational authority. Coser points out that Weber wrote about “pure” types of authority, and that “he was aware that in empirical reality mixtures will be found in the legitimation of authority” (Coser 1971, 227). As such, many examples of the following authority types may overlap. Traditional authority is legitimated by the sanctity of tradition. The ability and right to rule is passed down, often through heredity. It does not change overtime, does not facilitate social change, tends to be irrational and inconsistent, and perpetuates the status quo. In fact, Weber states: “The creation of new law opposite traditional norms is deemed impossible in principle.” Traditional authority is typically embodied in feudalism or patrimonialism. In a purely patriarchal structure, “the servants are completely and personally dependent upon the lord”, while in an estate system (i.e. feudalism), “the servants are not personal servants of the lord but independent men” (Weber 1958, 4). But, in both cases the system of authority does not change or evolve. Charismatic authority is found in a leader whose mission and vision inspire others. It is based upon the perceived extraordinary characteristics of an individual. Weber saw a charismatic leader as the head of a new social movement, and one instilled with divine or supernatural powers, such as a religious prophet. Weber seemed to favor charismatic authority, and spent a good deal of time discussing it. In a study of charisma and religion, Riesebrodt (1999) argues that Weber also thought charisma played a strong – if not integral – role in traditional authority systems. Thus, Weber’s favor for charismatic authority was particularly strong, especially in focusing on what happened to it with the death or decline of a charismatic leader. Charismatic authority is “routinized” in a number of ways according to Weber: orders are traditionalized, the staff or followers change into legal or “estate-like” (traditional) staff, or the meaning of charisma itself may undergo change. Legal-rational authority is empowered by a formalistic belief in the content of the law (legal) or natural law (rationality). Obedience is not given to a specific individual leader – whether traditional or charismatic – but a set of uniform principles. Weber thought the best example of legal-rational authority was a bureaucracy (political or economic). This form of authority is frequently found in the modern state, city governments, private and public corporations, and various voluntary associations. In fact, Weber stated that the “development of the modern state is identical indeed with that of modern officialdom and bureaucratic organizations just as the development of modern capitalism is identical with the increasing bureaucratization of economic enterprise (Weber 1958, 3).
In addition however, no authority structure, Weber wrote, could actually be exclusively bureaucratic, because some positions would be held by a variety of charismatic leaders. He also stated that non-bureaucratic legal authority could be found in organizations that have rotating office holders, such as “Parliamentary and committee administration and all sorts of collegiate and administrative bodies” (Weber 1958, 3). Weber’s feelings about bureaucracies sometimes came through in his writing and he tended to view the move towards legal-rational authority as a move into an “iron cage”. Weber’s theory of authority is very rich and intricate. Weber and others have detailed many interesting relationships and processes occurring between the types. Blau’s “Critical Remarks on Weber’s Theory of Authority” (1963) explains two of these in particular, components that either strengthen or weaken an authority type in regards to another.
The three authority types may be re-enforced by traits that differentiate them from other types. Traditional authority is impersonal (unlike charisma) and non-rational (unlike legal-rational). Charismatic authority is dynamic (unlike tradition) and non-rational (again, unlike legal-rational). Finally, legal-rational authority is dynamic (unlike tradition) and impersonal (unlike charisma). Conversely, Blau means to say that traditional is un-dynamic, charisma is personal, and legal-rational is rational. The likelihood of retaining a particular type of authority may depend on the ability of that authority system to retain the traits that make it unique and reject the traits that make it more conducive to another authority type. To elaborate, particular authority types can lose their power to and thus transition into other types by some of the following ways. Revolutionary ideals can be advocated by a charismatic leader or the rational pursuit of ends via abstract formal principles can both weaken traditional authority. Revolutionary charismatic movements can be crystallized into a traditional order or bureaucratized into a rational formal organization. Finally, the irrational forces and powers of tradition or charisma can weaken legal-rational authority.
Collins observes that, for Weber, these categories of authority “do not exist merely for the sake of labeling and classifying history; they are embedded in a larger network of concepts and in an image of how they work” (Collins 1986, 6). As such, Weber’s three types of authority match up to his three categories of inequality: class, status groups, and parties. Traditional authority is the basis for status groups. Charismatic authority lends itself to a market scheme (such as the potential for life chances), and Weber considered it to be the outcome of class. Finally, parties are the codification of legal-rational authority, especially in the case of bureaucracies.
For Zambia, traditionally, legitimated norms or rules with historic legitimacy and precedent – are found in anarchist predilection for specific types of organizing, such as the use of affinity groups, a practice common in most street kinds in Lusaka. Individual anarchists also have quite a swaying power, an influence that approaches charismatic authority, but still falls short – partially due to a general repulsion of leadership and partially due to a rejection by these individuals of being used as idols.
The only sense in which Weberian authority might intersect with anarchism in Zambia is with legal-rational. Although anarchists oppose the hierarchically-ordered modern state, they do practice a form of legal-rational authority within small organizations. In collectives, for instance, there are often rules or guidelines that must be followed, or else sanctions are lobbied. This is a voluntary reverence to authority, though, since any member of the collective can leave at any point. Also, it differs from most other forms of legal-rational authority in that individuals make a conscious effort to accept these rules, or even are involved in the rule formation themselves.
Even though it seems plausible to place some anarchist organizational structures within the legal-rational framework, Weber’s work suggests otherwise. He writes that although “legal rule” can be found in voluntary associations (such as anarchist collectives), it needs “an extensive and hierarchically organized staff of functionaries” (Weber 1958: 2). Since there is no hierarchy present in a collective, nor permanent functionaries, Weber’s own criteria discounts this possibility.
Over the past four years, the Zambian electorate has been dealt a series of body blows, each capable of altering the political landscape. The voting system broke down in a presidential election. A booming economy faltered, punctuated by revelations of one of the worst business scandals in the Zambian history. George (1997).

National unity has been the initial response to the calamitous events of hunger in many Zambians but that spirit has dissolved amid rising political polarization and anger. Perhaps the most striking evidence of a growing partisan disparity is the extent to which patriotic front, United National Party for Development and others now judge their personal influence and financial situation differently. While Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist is considered to be one of the most significant classical theorists because of his methods that are still being implemented into modern sociological research, Weber is best known for his essay, The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism, as well as being highly regarded for his ideas on bureaucracy, his study on class, status and party, and for his theory of social action., Almost all of Weber’s writing’s have had some kind, if not, a major impact on modern sociology. Weber believed that sociologists can learn to understand the actions of individuals and groups. This type of understanding is known as verstehen or “interpretive understanding” (E & A p. 138). Verstehen was Weber’s main method of sociological analysis. He saw sociology as being a unique discipline because of its ability to be able to understand people. Weber saw this as an advantage over other disciplines, like science, which doesn’t provide the same level of understanding, Coser (1971).
In Zambian government, authority is often used interchangeably with “power”. However, their meanings differ: while “power” is defined as “the ability to influence somebody to do something that he/she would not have done”, “authority” refers to a claim of legitimacy, the justification and right to exercise that power. For example, whilst a mob has the power to punish a criminal, for example by lynching, people who believe in the rule of law consider that only a court of law has the authority to order punishment.
Coser (1971) says Since the emergence of social sciences in the wold and Zambia in particular, authority has been a subject of research in a variety of empirical settings: the family (parental authority), small groups (informal authority of leadership), intermediate organizations, such as schools, churches, armies, industries and bureaucracies (organizational and bureaucratic authorities) and society-wide or inclusive organizations, ranging from the most primitive tribal society to the modern nation-state and intermediate organization (political authority).
Using the typology of authority in accord with Weber, the analysis of the social political landscape of Zambia today is impressing. It is inclined in authority and power. The definition of authority in contemporary social science is a matter of debate. According to Michaels, in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, authority is the capacity, innate or acquired for exercising ascendancy over a group. Other scientists, however, argue that authority is not a capacity but a relationship. It is sanctioned power, institutionalized power.
Max Weber, in his sociological and philosophical work, identified and distinguished three types of legitimate domination (Herrschaft in German, which generally means ‘domination’ or ‘rule’), that have sometimes been rendered in English translation as types of authority, because domination isn’t seen as a political concept in the first place. Weber defined domination (authority) as the chance of commands being obeyed by a specifiable group of people. Legitimate authority is that which is recognized as legitimate and justified by both the ruler and the ruled, Spencer (1970).
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Weber divided legitimate authority into three types:
The first type discussed by Weber is Rational-legal authority. It is that form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down and are often very complex. The power of the rational legal authority is mentioned in the constitution. Modern societies depend on legal-rational authority. Government officials are the best example of this form of authority, which is prevalent all over the world. The second type of authority is Traditional authority, which derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures. When power passes from one generation to another, then it is known as traditional authority. The right of hereditary monarchs to rule furnishes an obvious example. The Tudor dynasty in England and the ruling families of Mewar, in Rajasthan (India) are some examples of traditional authority. The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. Here, the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role. Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from “the gift of grace” or when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a “higher power” (e.g. God or natural law or rights) or “inspiration”, that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority and followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or inspired authority, in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been following. Examples in this regard can be NT Rama Rao, a matinee idol, who went on to become one of the most powerful Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh, Weber (1958).

In the Zambian political landscapes, history has witnessed several social movements or revolutions, against a system of traditional or legal-rational authority, which are usually started by Charismatic authorities. Webber states that what distinguishes authority, from coercion, force and power on the one hand and leadership, persuasion and influence on the other hand, is legitimacy. Superiors, he states, feel that they have a right to issue commands; subordinates perceive an obligation to obey. Social scientists agree that authority is but one of several resources available to incumbents in formal positions. For example, a Head of State is dependent upon a similar nesting of authority. His legitimacy must be acknowledged, not just by citizens, but by those who control other valued resources: his immediate staff, his cabinet, military leaders and in the long run, the administration and political apparatus of the entire society.
In Zambia just like any other state, every state has a number of institutions which exercise authority based on longstanding practices. Apart from this, every state sets up agencies which are competent in dealing with one particular matter through which authority is manifested.
It can be concluded that this essay has analyzed the social political landscape of Zambia using the typology of authority in accord with Weber. It was pointed out that there are so many unprofessionalism in the manner in which politics are conducted in Zambia where they keep on publicly insulting each other on issues that matters little just to show authority and power.

References
Blau, P. M. (1963). “Critical remarks on Weber’s theory of authority”. The American Political Science Review, 57 (2): 305-316.
Coser, L. A. (1971). Masters of sociological thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
George, D. A. R. (1997). “Self-management and ideology”, Review of Political Economy, 9 (1): 51-62.
Spencer, M. E. (1970). “Weber on legitimate norms and authority”. The British Journal of Sociology, 21 (2): 123-134.
Weber, M. (1958). “The three types of legitimate rule”. Berkeley Publications in Society and Institutions, 4 (1): 1-11. Translated by Hans Gerth.

AID ITS POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPLICATIONS – ESSAY FORM

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 16-03-2011

The principle aim of this paper is to discuss the concept of Aid pointing out its positives and negative ramifications. It will attempt to explore the unintended consequence of an action, decision, or judgment that may complicate a situation or make the desired result more difficult to achieve as a result of aid. However, this paper will discuss aid from the different angles in which the term aid can be discussed.
The concept aid refers to a resource or visual aid used in teaching like maps, books, board, marker chalk and others. The advantages of aid as a resource is that it helps the teacher or learning facilitator to present the material in a concise and clear manner for learners to understand. It helps learners to grasp the concepts and subject matter faster than just theory. The disadvantage of aid as a teaching resource is that it make teachers less active in constructing explanations for a particular entity with an aid. Aid can also be looked at as the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose; “he gave me an assist with the housework”; “could not walk without assistance”; “rescue party went to their aid”.
The concept of aid is also perceived as monetory or any other assistance given from one country, continent or nation to another. Aid in this context is also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid referring to a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another, given at least partly with the objective of benefiting the recipient country. It may have other functions as well: it may be given as a signal of diplomatic approval, or to strengthen a military ally, to reward a government for behaviour desired by the donor, to extend the donor’s cultural influence, to provide infrastructure needed by the donor for resource extraction from the recipient country, or to gain other kinds of commercial access. Humanitarianism and altruism are, nevertheless, significant motivations for the giving of aid. In line with this train of thought, the capability approach promotes the development of giving aid with an aim towards improving each individual’s freedoms to develop capabilities, (Håkan, 2000).
The concept of aid is received with a mixture of feelings from different stake holders. Aid may be given by individuals, private organizations, or governments. Standards delimiting exactly the kinds of transfers that count as aid vary. Even if the principles of a definition are set, it remains difficult to determine the effective flow of aid because aid is fungible: receiving aid may free up funds in the recipient country for use in non-aid projects that could not have been undertaken had the aid not been received. For example, receiving food aid may enable a government to divert funds from its own food-support budget to its military budget. In that case the net effect of the aid is military although the aid money might actually be spent on food. Official organisations and those scholars who are primarily concerned with government policy issues frequently include only government-sourced aid in their aid figures, omitting aid from private sources. The most widely used measure of aid, “Official Development Assistance” (ODA) is such a figure. It is compiled by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The United Nations, the World Bank, and many scholars use the DAC’s ODA figure as their main aid figure because it is easily available and reasonably consistently calculated over time and between countries, (Håkan, 2000).
Sogge (2002:15) says aid is another word for ‘help’. Richer countries give poorer countries aid to help them to make a better future for themselves. Giving people the tools and skills they need to fix their own problems is one example of aid. Persuading people to drop unfair debts is another. Poorer countries need aid to help them provide things like schools and hospitals. More aid would mean that every child in the world could go to school. Aid could give life-saving treatment to millions of people living with HIV/AIDS. It could pay for two million extra teachers, and four million health workers, which would mean free medical care and schooling for everyone.
However, there are some problems with aid. Sometimes richer countries prefer to give money to some countries and not others. The money may only be given for one year and not the next, or the amount may change. This makes it hard for poorer countries to make plans for the future. Even so, Make Poverty History achieved something amazing by persuading world leaders to drop the debts of 35 countries. Those countries have now got a chance to get back on their feet for the first time in many years. But it’s important to remember we need to drop the debts as well as give aid.
Beside these arguments, there are many misconceptions about aid, trade and foreign policy which affect our analysis of other nation’s aid programs. Contemporary approaches to aid and development follow a long history from colonialism and post-colonialism through the post-World War II establishment of the United Nations and other international institutions. An understanding of this history enables us to appreciate the structural inequalities and imbalances in power in the global community. In recent years, some new players have emerged in the aid environment. These developments reflect changes in global power relations. This includes states such as China and Taiwan taking on roles as key bilateral donors and the growth of private actors as donors. The growth of philanthropy and private capital flows in aid may be seen a reflection of the increasing power of private capital in the global economy, vis a vis nation states, Sogge, David (2002).
Sogge furthers that aid priorities are subject to various differences of opinion. There are competing views on issues such as: aid for development driven by economic growth, security interests, increased recipient autonomy and grassroots development. The official objective of Zambia’s overseas aid program is “to assist developing countries reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development, in line with Australia’s national interest”. Moyo, Dambisa (2010) says:
Aid should be first and foremost guided by the needs of communities, allowing communities to determine their own development needs. It should promote local ownership and sustainability and be based on principles of social and environmental justice and support sustainable and long-term self-determination. Aid should be a mechanism of global social responsibility; not a tool for Zambia’s national interest. The final outcome of aid should be to remove the need for aid
This situation is quiet difficulty to manage because currently, a lot of third world countries receive Aids from the more developed ones. This situation, lasting for many years, has both, positive and negative aspects.

To begin with, humanitarian support is vital for Africa and some other continents. As a result of extremely low standards of living, people in such countries feel a huge lack of food and medicine. Therefore, the need of international Aid is undoubted. Furthermore, this support usually comes with education, which helps to prevent from AIDS and from other social diseases. Also, an Aid is inevitable after earthquakes and hurricanes when certain regions suffer from lack of drinking water.
Beisde these aspects, there are some serious disadvantages of supporting poor countries. Firstly, most of governments in such regions do not make much effort to deal with social problems. Instead, they collect treasure and set strong restrictions for citizens, what even make a situation worse. Secondly, such countries as, North Korea invest money into weapons and create danger to whole world despite they have many problems inside them. Finally, there does not seem any clear future prospects and improvement. In other words, there is no evidence that this situation will ever end. In addition, birth rate in poor countries increases, as it falls in the richest at the same time. International Aid must have long-term benefit for poor countries. Otherwise, it is only the question of time when developed countries would not be able to maintain growing number of people in the third world.
There are many ramifications and criticism with regard to aid. Aid is seldom given from motives of pure altruism; for instance it is often given as a means of supporting an ally in international politics and this does not help countries but they are just helping themselves. It may also be given with the intention of influencing the political process in the receiving nation. Whether one considers such aid helpful may depend on whether one agrees with the agenda being pursued by the donor nation in a particular case. During the conflict between communism and capitalism in the twentieth century, the champions of those ideologies, the Soviet Union and the United States, each used aid to influence the internal politics of other nations, and to support their weaker allies. Perhaps the most notable example was the Marshall Plan by which the United States, largely successfully, sought to pull European nations toward capitalism and away from communism. Aid to underdeveloped countries has sometimes been criticized as being more in the interest of the donor than the recipient, or even a form of neocolonialism, Dambisa (2010).
Other ramifications are that aid is given with some specific motives: defense support, market expansion, foreign investment, missionary enterprise, cultural extension. In recent decades, aid by organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank has been criticized as being primarily a tool used to open new areas up to global capitalists, and being only secondarily, if at all, concerned with the wellbeing of the people in the recipient countries.
Alongside with these ramifications of aid, aid may be criticized simply on the grounds that it is not effective: i.e., it did not do what it was intended to do or help the people it was intended to help. This is essentially an economic criticism of aid. The two types of criticism are not entirely separate: critics of the ideology behind a piece of aid are likely to see it as ineffective; and indeed, ineffectiveness must imply some flaws in the ideology. Statistical studies have produced widely differing assessments of the correlation between aid and economic growth, and no firm consensus has emerged to suggest that foreign aid generally does boost growth. Some studies find a positive correlation, but others find either no correlation or a negative correlation. In the case of Africa, Asante (1985) gives the following assessment:
Summing up the experience of African countries both at the national and at the regional levels it is no exaggeration to suggest that, on balance, foreign assistance, especially foreign capitalism, has been somewhat deleterious to African development. It must be admitted, however, that the pattern of development is complex and the effect upon it of foreign assistance is still not clearly determined. But the limited evidence available suggests that the forms in which foreign resources have been extended to Africa over the past twenty-five years, insofar as they are concerned with economic development, are, to a great extent, counterproductive.
Other scholars like economist William Easterly and others have argued that aid can often distort incentives in poor countries in various harmful ways. Aid can also involve inflows of money to poor countries that have some similarities to inflows of money from natural resources that provoke the resource curse. Emergency funds from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, for instance, are linked to a wide range of free-market policy prescriptions that some argue interfere in a country’s sovereignty. Policy prescriptions from outsiders can do more harm as they might not fit the local environment. The IMF can be good at helping countries over a short problematic financial period, but for poor countries with long lasting issues it can cause harm.
It is clear that tere are many ramifications and criticism of aid, but many factors, including those discussed below and more, must be considered in a discussion that takes into account the effectiveness of aid. While it is true that aid is rarely given for motives of pure altruism. However, it is important to look at where aid goes. For example, “only about one fifth of U.S. aid goes to countries classified by the OECD as ‘least developed.’ The basic criticism of aid is that it neither goes where it was intended nor helps those intended. According to Collier, there are four known traps that contribute this problem. The first such trap is known as the conflict trap. Aid should not be used to finance military endeavors. It is difficult to “design aid in such a way that it works even in the environments of poor governance and poor policy that are most at risk of conflict.” The second trap is called the natural resource trap. Countries that are resource rich already have a large volume of capital flowing into their economies. However, it is not being used to its potential. The third trap occurs when a country is entirely landlocked. This one is not too hard to figure out – it is difficult for these countries to engage in global trade. The fourth trap is that of bad governance. However, “there are three ways in which aid can potentially help turnarounds: incentives, skills, and reinforcement.” Policy conditionalities, or structural adjustments, were reservations put on aid until a government agreed to aid implemented in the 1980’s. This did not work. Aid needs to somehow provide incentives for giving the people power. Power needs to be transferred from the governments to the people. Aid should be restructured in order to allow for skills building in country. According to Collier, “technical assistance is not negligible – money spent on countries with the skilled people who constitute technical assistance is a quarter of total aid flows.”[ The problem is not that too little money is being provided, rather that technical assistance is not country specific. Aid is also given as budget support, reinforcement for failing states. There is an opportune moment for assisting failing states but it must be done at the right time. Aid cannot be continually poured into failing states and be expected to produce a turnaround. However, if aid is given at the opportune political moment, it can support turnarounds. Collier suggests that when that moment occurs “pour in the technical assistance as quickly as possible to help implement reform” and “then, after a few years, start pouring in the money for the government to spend.”
It can be concluded that this paper has discussed the concept of aid poiting out its negatives and positive ramifications. Aid should be to learn what developing countries hope to accomplish and how much money they need to accomplish those goals. Goals should be made with the Millennium Development Goals in mind for these furnish real metrics for providing basic needs and in addressing the needs and expectations of a particular country. Those giving aid should not do so with a viewing milking the little resources those countries have as it is done in most countries today.

REFERENCES
ActionAid, May 2005, “Real Aid” – analysis of the proportion of aid wasted on consultants, tied aid, etc.
Håkan Malmqvist (2000), Development Aid, Humanitarian Assistance and Emergency Relief, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden.
Moyo, Dambisa (2010). Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How There is Another Way for Africa. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-141031-187
Riddell, Roger C. (2008). Does Foreign Aid Work?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-544446-2.

UNZASEDA

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 29-01-2011

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA SCHOOL OF EDUCATION ASSOCIATION (UNZASEDA)

ORIGINS
The University of Zambia School of Education Association (UNZASEDA) was officially established in 2008. It was an improved version of the University of Zambia Teachers Association (UNZATA) formed by a group of determined students from within the University of Zambia in the School of Education.

The fathers of UNZASEDA include M’zizi Kantini Samson who was also the president of UNZATA in 2007, Mwazi Oscar who was the vice president, Sitwe Benson Mkandawire who was the Secretary General, Mwale Chongo Eric who was the treasurer and Christine Mwanza saving as the publicity secretary.

When the executive of UNZATA wrote to the Dean’s Office of the School of Education suggesting that all students registered in the school of education should automatically become members of UNZATA, the Dean was pleased with this request but he requested that the association must have a blessing from all students in the school. That time, the school was finding ways and means to involve students in most of the school activities and this created a conducive environment for establishing the biggest and strongest association in the history of the University of Zambia.

Two weeks later on 4th November 2007, the Dean School of Education called all students in the school for a meeting to share this news with every student in the school. The meeting was held in NELT in the afternoon and in attendance was the Dean himself, Assistant deans one and two and the Assistant Registrar school of Education plus over 500 students, others were outside the hall due to limited space in NELT.

In this meeting, all students accepted to be members UNZATA but the name of the association had to be changed because it was restricted to teachers alone but we know very well that the school of education does not produce teachers alone but different kinds of professionals in the different available programmes.

After this meeting, UNZATA ceased to exist including its executive and the birth of UNZASEDA was recorded. The school constituted an interim executive constituting all members who were in UNZATA and two people from each one of the eight programmes of the school; i. e. two from; B. A. AED, BED, BALIS, AED, and others. This interim worked very hard until an executive was constituted headed by the same president of UNZATA Kantini Samson. In this interim executive, the former vice president of UNZATA Oscar Mwazi, Treasurer Eric Mwale and the Secretary General Sitwe Benson Mkandawire refused to stand for elections in the interim as they did not want UNZATA executive to take over UNZASEDA again but created reasons of their own for not standing. However, later, they accepted to be in the council where there was less controversial issues and Eric Mwale became the Chairperson of the council of representatives from all programmes. In fact the council that time was in charge of all programmes and UNZASEDA looked at the affairs of the school with the council reporting to them.

The whole lot of this process involved some Lectures and administrators and therefore at the end, UNZASEDA was fathered not by individuals but student masses and lecturers’ both professional and unprofessional treatment of the learners under the general turbulent circumstances of the education system in Zambia. The student compact mass constituted those who researched into the sociology, policy and administration of education with special reference to Zambia. There emerged a cadre of young leaders who could connect theory to pratice. Among these, notable names include Imanga Malyande, Sitwe Mkandawire, Eric Mwale, Oscar Mwazi and Samson Kantini.

After a wide university stakeholder consultative process that this cadre had done, its recommendations coincided with a student general assembly that the administration of the School of Education called for. The conveners of this Assembly headed by Wanga Chakanika and others could not hesitate to mention that their offices were open for this noble cause.

Forthwith, departments of the school of education and those which derived 50+1% of their students from the school of education were charged to send student representatives to join what came to be known as the Triple C – Consultive Constitutional Committee (CCC) on the Formation of Student Professional Association. Chaired by a transparent and progressive strategic young thinker, triple C culminated into what is today known as UNZASEDA.

The birth of UNZASEDA was not without opposition from those who felt it was professionally about to once again build rational student activism and introduce student professionalism. But knowledge will always rule over ignorance. The opposition did not succeed. It was consolidated to become the first professional association with a large following in the history of UNZA. From its mandatory membership fees it developed a loan scheme to help students with financial difficulties. It also established and furnished an operating office within the University. For the first time it sent duly elected representatives by the represented to the School of Education board of studies. One of the biggest board that bring together affiliate institutions to the School of Education to deliberate issues of mutual concern with the University through the School of education. The first agenda of UNZASEDA also helped the school of education in collectively tackling the issues surrounding student teaching experience allowances and duration of the experience itself. The success of the Association in professionally facilitating dialogue to solve this problem helped it receive its first round of applause and standing ovation from its critics of the time, fourth years (2008/9).

By the time the first leadership was winding its short but difficult term of office, its strength was deepening and its concerts where well attended that the Ministry of Education offered a place to the Association through and under the facilitation of able School of Education Administration at the 2009 Mulungush Education Symposium.

The stance of UNZASEDA today may not be flourishing as earlier envisioned but surely, they are making good progress. It would only be bad if it starts joining ranks with old university student associations and unions that wait for executive elections and graduation parties. The INITIAL UNZASEDA was competing with UNZASU as they could come to borrow money from UNZASEDA. The situation now may not be clear, the institutional and national agenda of the association may not even be known today by some members including those who may be leading it.

The formalized first UNZASEDA executive included heroes of the freedom fight and civil rights movement including Kantini Samson chairperson, Mwape Sunday vice chairperson, Abigail Mbozi Secretary general, Bertha Masala treasurer, Martha kayuni publicity secretary, and those in the council executive included Benson Mkandawire, Eric Mwale Chongo, Oscar Mwazi, Chanda, Lungu and those whose contributions remain visible by the monumental existence of UNZASEDA.

UNZASEDA I know can make a difference at every level. It can still bridge that gap between students and management as they spearhead professionalism in the country.

SITWE EFFECTS

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 28-01-2011

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THE SITWE EFFECTS
The ‘Sitwe Effects’ states that “whenever there is a presence of two admirable people of opposite sex or many admirable people of opposite sex, it’s just natural for them to look at each other with complete sexual intercourse in their minds. This natural attraction forces them to look back at each other and visualize more and more on how they would catharsize”.
The “Sitwe effect” is that feeling that there is something special where I am and I need to behave in a certain way. This control due to such an environment is done for a reason mostly that of attention from those that humbled you and thereby gaining respect and control of yourself.
It is called “Sitwe Effect” because the study was carried out in Sitwe area of Chama District of the eastern province of Zambia in the late 1998 and revitalized in 2010, now in the city specifically from Lusaka and the University of Zambia by a researcher named after the research area Sitwe Benson Mkandawire.
This conclusion was arrived at after a series of studies and observation from similar admirable people. In one of the studies, two participants falsely named Tamala female and Yona male of admirable ages met each other for the first time. They looked at each other completely suggestive and by-passed each other. Tamala and Yona both back at each other to catharsizes and visualize more on each other.
In another study, a man looked back but the Female pretended not to look back immediately probably due to coyness but after she moved away from him, she stopped turned pretending to be answering a phone call.

Mandatory Professional Education -Essay form

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 27-01-2011

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The concept ‘mandatory professional education’ refer to the type of education exposed learners of those programmes deemed to be professions like Doctors and Lawyers for them to work effectively and efficiently when they go to the world of work. This education programme is also extended to those already in the work fraternity but is expected to attend refresher courses in order to improve professionally in terms efficiency, effectiveness including some ethical considerations in their profession and this later education is called mandatory continuing professional education. The principle aim of this paper is to demonstrate the understanding of the term “Mandatory Professional Education” and analyze its application in one profession specifically law. The paper starts with a brief introduction and then proceeds to the main body before the conclusion is given.
Mandatory professional education prepares learners to become ethically considerate and become efficient and effective in their respective profession. For instance, in the legal fraternity, lawyers are trained before they go into the field to improve the administration of justice which in turn benefits the public interest. Regular participation in Continuing Legal Education programs enhances the professional skills of practicing lawyers, afford them periodic opportunities for professional self-evaluation and improve the quality of legal services rendered to the public. All active members of the Zambia’s Law Association specifically those to do with the Zambian State Bar are always urged to participate in an additional amount of further legal study throughout the period of their active practice of law, and failure to do so results in their suspension from membership in the Zambia’s State Bar.
Mandatory professional education in Zambia in the area of law is firstly portrayed at Zambian Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) where all those who finished their law programmes are expected to go first before they can be admitted into the bar as practicing lawyers. Although it is part of their qualification, this education is also issued to those professionals already in the work fraternity but are expected to attend refresher courses in order to improve professionally in terms efficiency and effectiveness. However, it should be noted here that the concept of mandatory professional education (MPE) for professionals is controversial because at its heart are questions about the nature of professions and of adult education. Being a professional implies commitment to continuing one’s education and the ability to pursue practice-enhancing learning. So there would seem to be no need for mandates. However, due to advances in knowledge and technology, as well as public demands for accountability and consumer protection, the number of states requiring professional education for many professions has significantly increased in different professions.
Mandatory continuing professional education is a recommendation for all practicing lawyers in Zambia so that they remain active and up to date with information and current legal activities. This requirement is not only in Zambia but also in other countries as well like Britain, China, USA and Canada. In other countries like the USA, they even have a Continuing Legal Education Board established for the purpose of administering the program. The Board have those general administrative and supervisory powers necessary to effectuate the purposes of this rule, including the power to adopt reasonable and necessary regulations consistent with this rule. For example, the Virginia State Bar have the responsibility for funding the Board and for enforcing Mandatory Continuing Legal Education requirements. Its duties and powers include: (a) To approve, on an individual basis, continuing legal education (CLE) programs and sponsors and publish a list of those approved. The publication include the number of credits earned for completion of a particular program; (b) To establish procedures for the approval of Continuing Legal Education courses, whether those courses are offered within the Commonwealth or elsewhere. These procedures should include the method by which CLE sponsors could make application to the Board for approval, and if necessary, make amendments to their application; (c) To authorize sponsors of Continuing Legal Education programs to advertise that participation in their program fulfills the CLE requirements of this Rule; (d) To formulate and distribute to all members of the Virginia State Bar appropriate information regarding the requirements of this Rule, including the distribution of a certification form to be filed annually by each active member.
Mandatory professional education learners are expected to possess a certain number of requirements as demanded in that particular profession. These requirements vary depending on the requirements of the different boards. For instance, in Zambia, an individual is expected to posses a degree in law from a reputable University recognized by the world for them to enter into this law profession with specific mandatory professional education. In Virginia, learners equally are expected to posses certain requirements as follows; (1) All active members of the Virginia State Bar shall annually complete and certify attendance at a minimum of twelve (12) credit hours of approved Continuing Legal Education courses of which at least two (2) hours shall be in the area of legal ethics or professionalism, except those lawyers expressly exempted from the requirement by this Rule or by decision of the Continuing Legal Education Board; provided, however, that for the specific period of time, active members shall complete and certify attendance at a minimum of fifteen (15) credit hours of approved Continuing Legal Education courses of which at least two (2) hours shall be in the area of legal ethics or professionalism, except those lawyers expressly exempted from the requirement by this rule or by decision of the Continuing Legal Education Board. Each active member shall complete the required Continuing Legal Education courses each year during a specific period of time. (2) In order to provide flexibility in fulfilling the annual requirement, a one year carryover of credit hours is permitted, so that accrued credit hours in excess of one year’s requirement may be carried forward from one year to meet the requirement for the next year. A member may carry forward a maximum of twelve (12) credit hours, two (2) of which, if earned in legal ethics or professionalism, may be counted toward the two (2) hours required in legal ethics or professionalism and finally (3) Each active member of the Virginia State Bar is responsible for ascertaining whether or not a particular course satisfies the requirements of this Rule. Each member should exercise discretion in choosing those approved programs which are most likely to enhance professional skills and improve delivery of legal services.
Although mandatory professional education is said to have a lot of advantages as far preparation of professionals are concerned, there is a strong debate about it strength and weaknesses as discussed by Sandra Kerka (2008:2) who says that the following are the chief arguments of those opposed to MPE as quoted in (Brockett and LeGrand 1992; Morrison 1992; Nelson 1988; Queeney and English 1994):
It violates adult learning principles, such as voluntary participation, the informal nature of adult education, and adult self-direction. It promotes uniformity by disregarding individual learning needs and styles. By definition, professionals are supposed to be autonomous, self-managed, and responsible for mastery of knowledge; MPE and MCE is punitive to those who participate voluntarily. Evidence that it results in improved practice is lacking. All that is mandated is attendance, which will not necessarily change attitudes, motivation, determination to practice responsibly, or ability to learn. Programs are not consistently and uniformly available. Many lack quality and relevance to practitioner needs. MCE may encourage providers to focus on profit. Requiring participation may hinder learning by reducing motivation and individual responsibility. Professionals should be accountable for effective performance, not participation.
Although these scholars are against this kind of education, there are also other proponents who support MPCE for the following reasons (Brockett and LeGrand 1992; Little 1993; Nelson 1988; Queeney and English 1994; Queeney, Smutz, and Shuman 1990):
Expecting voluntary participation is unrealistic. Those who need it most may be least likely to participate. There is some evidence that well-designed programs can influence effective practice. MCE can provide equal access to a range of opportunities. Mandates are necessary to protect the public from incompetent or out-of-date practitioners. Although imperfect, it is better than such alternatives as examination or practice review. By choosing a profession, professionals submit to its norms. A license to practice implies consent to be governed by the rules of the profession.
It is clear that these arguments are very strong. However, although some studies have found negative attitudes among those required to participate, Queeney, Smutz, and Shuman (1990) suggest that MCE participants may judge their participation more thoughtfully and critically because it is required; they expect high quality and applicability and become more astute consumers of learning opportunities. Some feel that the mandatory debate is a dead issue (Brockett and LeGrand 1992; Nelson 1988; Queeney and English 1994). Rather than arguing about whether professional continuing education should be mandatory, the focus should be on improving the content and delivery of CPE. However, the “content of CPE courses is often based on precedent or what the providers think is worthwhile, rather than any systematic analysis of what constitutes competent current practice of the profession” (Hager and Gonczi 1991, p. 24). Some consider competency-based standards the solution. This aspect can be very seriously and sometimes quiet misleading. There is need to address such mandatory professional educations world and Zambia in particular.
Providers of mandatory professional education should bare in mind both the prons and cons of this kind of education and focuss on ways of improving this kind of education. However, rather than debating the mandatory issue or arguing whether competency standards are appropriate for professionals, “a preferable alternative might be to focus on alleviating the problems associated with continuing professional education as a tool for improving professional practice” (Queeney and English 1994 :16). Some of the problems are as follows (Cervero et al. 1990): multiplicity of providers; lack of standards; and dissention about who should pay, who should determine the level and frequency of participation, and what type of activity should count as continuing education.
Effective CPE should be accessible, affordable, and of high standards. It is difficult to balance quality considerations with the need to keep costs reasonable, serve large numbers, and address continual updating needs in many specializations. Collaboration among providers is recommended. CPE should be relevant to individual learning needs, applicable to practice, and designed for different learning styles. Professionals in organizational settings should receive support for transferring learning to practice, and interstate mobility of MCE credentials should be established.
The argument is that CPE should be rooted in and viewed as an extension of professional education. Competence evolves over time, and effective learning is a long-term, cumulative, integrated process (Cervero et al. 1990; Queeney and English 1994). CPE should be viewed as part of the lifelong learning continuum, and development of a mindset toward continuing education should begin prior to practice. This requires a systematic approach to developing a strategic lifelong learning agenda that is holistic (taking into account the multiple cultural influences on practice). Currently rare, educational counseling services for professionals are needed.
Sandra Kerka (2008:6) further says CPE should link practitioner competence to the ideals of public service and accountability by (1) stressing the value judgments and ethical considerations in practice, (2) developing competence and expertise in conjunction with understanding of the human purposes of professional service, and (3) promoting cooperation, interdependence, and collaboration as additional ways to improve competence (Cervero et al. 1990). Nelson (1988) warns that MCE should not be oversold as a solution. Associations for professions in which continuing education is mandatory should promote the values of CPE to their members while acknowledging to the public the limitations and difficulties of certifying competence and of documenting MCE’s effects on practice. A most important factor in overcoming objections to mandated education is consideration of the professional as an adult learner. Program design and delivery should emphasize consultation and cooperation, not coercion (Nelson 1988). Professionals can be given broad latitude in the selection and design of their individual learning programs (Brockett and LeGrand 1992), especially if standards against which to compare them have been established. Cervero et al. (1990) give the following description of professionals as learners: “professionals construct an understanding of current situations of practice using a repertoire of practical knowledge acquired primarily through experience in prior ‘real life’ situations” (p. 178). CPE must foster both practical knowledge or know-how as well as critical reflection.
It can be concluded that mandatory professional education has to do with training learners by imparting all skills needed in a certain or particular profession like administration, how to treat clients, ethical considerations, understanding the operations of the system, efficiency and effectiveness as discussed in the paper. Although in some professions MCE has become the norm, its mandatory nature should not be the focus. “One answer to the mandatory continuing education conundrum may be not the mandatory or voluntary nature of continuing education, but the transformation of professionals into motivated seekers of education and this is what it should be in all mandatory professional education.

REFERENCES
Brockett, R. G., and LeGrand, B. F. “Part Five: Should Continuing Education Be Mandatory?” NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION no. 54 (Summer 1992): 85-103. (EJ 449 593)
Davison, T. “Competency-Based Training & Competency-Based Assessment.” Paper presented at the Queensland (Australia) Training Officer Society Conference, May 1994.
Hager, P., and Gonczi, A. “Competency-Based Standards: A Boon for Continuing Professional Education?” STUDIES IN CONTINUING EDUCATION 13, no. 1 (1991): 24-40. (EJ 440 649)
Kerka, S. (2008) Mandatory Professional Continuing education . Circulatory Article.
Nelson, J. W. “Design and Delivery of Programs under Mandatory Continuing Professional Education.” STUDIES IN CONTINUING EDUCATION 10, no. 2 (1988): 81-103. (EJ 384 843)
Queeney, D. S., and English, J. K. MANDATORY CONTINUING EDUCATION: A STATUS REPORT. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education and Training for Employment, The Ohio State University, 1994.

The Sitwe Effects

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THE SITWE EFFECTS
The ‘Sitwe Effects’ states that “whenever there is a presence of two admirable people of opposite sex or many admirable people of opposite sex, it’s just natural for them to look at each other with complete sexual intercourse in their minds. This natural attraction forces them to look back at each other and visualize more and more on how they would catharsize”.
The “Sitwe effect” is that feeling that there is something special where I am and I need to behave in a certain way. This control due to such an environment is done for a reason mostly that of attention from those that humbled you and thereby gaining respect and control of yourself.
It is called “Sitwe Effect” because the study was carried out in Sitwe area of Chama District of the eastern province of Zambia in the late 1998 and revitalized in 2010, now in the city specifically from Lusaka and the University of Zambia by a researcher named after the research area Sitwe Benson Mkandawire.
This conclusion was arrived at after a series of studies and observation from similar admirable people. In one of the studies, two participants falsely named Tamala female and Yona male of admirable ages met each other for the first time. They looked at each other completely suggestive and by-passed each other. Tamala and Yona both back at each other to catharsizes and visualize more on each other.
In another study, a man looked back but the Female pretended not to look back immediately probably due to coyness but after she moved away from him, she stopped turned pretending to be answering a phone call.

Selecting Comprehension passage for teaching

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 08-01-2011

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1. Select a suitable passage of about 200 words that can be used for intensive reading at grade ten level. Then construct the following questions to test the learner’s understanding of the passage.
(i) Three multiple choice questions
(ii) Two free response questions
(iii) One question with five true or false statements

2. Explain how reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of summary, vocabulary, composition writing and grammar. Illustrate your answer using the comprehension passage you have selected in question one

SELECTION OF INTENSIVE READING PASSAGE: A CASE FOR GRADE TEN LEVEL AND HOW READING COMPREHENSION PASSAGE RELATES TO TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SUMMARY, VOCABULARY, COMPOSITION WRITING AND GRAMMAR.

13.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Selecting a suitable passage to teach any grade is an intricate task which calls for serious commitment and considerations by the teacher. Much attention has to be paid to length of the passage, intellectual and lexical level of the class, structural level of the text, subject matter being handled and the cultural appropriateness. Having looked at that, a comprehensible passage can be constructed for a class and such a passage can be used to teach structural and linguistic units such as summary, vocabulary, composition writing and grammar.

Intensive reading is the kind of reading for both denotative and connotative meanings. It is reading for exactly and implied meaning. It calls for intellectual understanding of the learners so that they get the full meaning of the passage. “Intensive reading (study reading) is reading for the purpose of intellectual understanding, knowledge, evaluation and interpretation” (Lungu 2006).

14.0 DEVELOPING A LANGUAGE
It is evident that every Language is developing time and again. New words are being created while old words are fading out. An important aspect of the general characteristic of language is openness, which argues that all languages are in a continuous process of getting new words and shunning old ones. This development emerges from the people’s cultural context trying to meet the challenges in the new world with some technological advancement. There is a close relationship between language and culture. Conveniently, there is mutual respect between the two terms. The culture of the people is perpetuated from generation to generation through language and language is a vehicle for culture.

However, when developing a language, linguists cannot run away from neologism. When George met this term for the first time, he thought it meant “laughing loud” but later, it was clearly understood to mean three things; creating a new meaning in new form of a word through invention and borrowing, creating a new meaning in old form of a word through Derivation, compounding and backformation and having the old meaning of a word in new form through acronyms and blending.

2.1.0 ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS FROM THE PASSAGE

2.1.1 The three Multiple choice questions.
(i) From paragraph one, what feature of language make it easy to allow new words.
(a) Characteristic
(b) Shunning
(c) Closeness
(d) Openness
(e) Fading

(ii) According to George in paragraph two, the word neologism initially meant.
(a) Creating new words
(b) Three things
(c) Laughing loud
(d) Invention and borrowing
(e) Loan word

(iii) Which word in the passage means the same as ‘the way people live?’
(a) Neologism
(b) Derivation
(c) Blending
(d) Stability
(e) Culture

2.1.2 Two free response questions
(i) In your view, how can you develop your language? (Write half a page)
(ii) Do you think there is any relationship between language and culture? Explain.

2.1.3 One question with five true or false statements.
Write True or False in each of the following statements according to the passage.
(i) It is not impossible to develop a language.
(ii) Neologism as it is used today does not mean laughing.
(iii) Invention and borrowing creates new meaning in new form.
(iv) Blending involves creating new meaning in old form.
(v) Developing a language does not involve neologism processes.

15.0 QUESTION TWO
3.1 How a reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of summary.

Summary is a brief account of a book, a talk or any piece of discourse. A reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of summary in the sense that a teacher cannot ask learners to write a summary of a passage which they do not understand. The teacher must first teach the learners how to extract relevant information from the passage so that learners can express themselves clearly and consciously in their own words. Learners must first understand the reading passage and how information is packaged before summarising the reading passage. When pupils have understood the passage clearly, they can easily select important points, put them in note form and later blend them to a draft stage, editing stage, proof reading stage up to publication stage as summary. The teaching of summary writing from a passage is as good as teaching composition writing because they both involve same skills of writing such as note-taking, drafting, proof reading including the discussion, practice and production at the end. This is how a reading comprehension relates to the teaching of summary.
3.2 How a reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of composition writing.

A reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of composition writing in the sense that learners will need to firstly understand the subject area they are dealing with. The free response questions in (2.1.2) from the passage require that learners fully understand what is in the passage. They have to carefully and logically think on how to package their information clearly so that there is coherence. A teacher can only ask pupils to write a composition from the passage if he or she has discussed the passage with the class and convinced that the class have understood and practiced it and finally he can demand for production from the class. However, the learners after discussion read the passage more slowly for understanding of what has just been taught. Here a teacher may select a good number of words from the passage for pupils to use in their composition and in this way, learners are also learning Vocabulary.

3.3 How a reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of vocabulary.

Vocabulary refers to the user’s knowledge of words. A teacher can teach vocabulary by asking learners to contextualise words as they have been used in the text passage. The teacher must concentrate on the meaning conveyed in the passage and not the dictionary meaning it is important that the learners know the parts of speech to which a particular word belong. Developing students an learn a good number of unknown words from the passage by consulting the teacher or dictionary at times. Teaching and learning based on the context is the best approach of teaching linguistic units as Wallace (1982) stated that;
After several years of teaching, I have found that enabling students to derive meaning with the help of context clues is an effective approach to increase vocabulary and reading comprehension.
The best way to discover meaning of new words is guessing vocabulary from the context of the passage. This can be done by drawing inferences from our intuition.
3.4 How reading comprehension relates to the teaching and learning of grammar
Grammar in the traditional sense is a branch of linguistics which deals with syntax and morphology. Grammar is closely related to vocabulary in the sense that their grammatical patterns as derived from the passage can help the reader guess the meaning of words from the text. This suggests that a word can be both a grammatical item or vocabulary item. This relationship is seen by the interdependence of grammatical and lexical cohesion which support each other in a typical context.

4.0 Conclusion
This paper can be concluded in two fold; Cognitive closure and social closure.

4.1 Cognitive closure
The paper have provided a reading passage for grade tens with respect to the question. It has constructed the different questions in line with the instructions and finally the paper has explained how a reading comprehension passage can be used for the teaching and learning of the various linguistic units and structures in a language.

4.2 Social Closure
It is observed from the paper that, there is a close relationship between a reading comprehension passage and other units in the question. In the same vain, other units like Vocabulary and grammar are intertwined to some extent that they can hardly be separated in the same word.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

British Council Teachers. 1980. Six aspects of Vocabulary teaching. RELC Journal Supplement Guidelines, 3, pp. 83–85.

Gairns, R., and S. Redman. 1986. Working with words: A guide to teaching and learning Vocabulary. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Halliday, M. A. K., and R. Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

Nunan, D. 1991. Language teaching methodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wallace, M. 1982. Teaching Vocabulary. London: Heinemann Educational
Books.

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How to improve education system

Filed under Uncategorized by bmsitwe on 08-01-2011

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A country without a well structured educational system is doomed because education is the key to any form of development in a country. Every human being whether young or adult has received some sort of education but the question is what sort of education is being talked about? There are so many educational systems. For instance there is a kind of education system which was brought by the missionaries to Africans. This kind of education system is hierarchically structured from lowest to highest levels (Pre-school to university) and there is a kind of education system for African called the indigenous education system. Although there are some similarities between the two educational systems, there are also many differences. Nevertheless, the aim of this paper is to suggest means on how one would improve the hierarchically structured educational system in the case of Zambia if he or she was to take up the role of the ministry of education or the permanent secretary.

Without any reasonable doubts, the term education has been defined by so many people in academic circles. Each of them defines the term in a different way. For instance, some scholar define education as an action exercised by the adult generation on those who are not yet ready for social life. According to UNESCO, Education is an organized and sustained communication process designed to bring about learning. Snelson (1974:1) defines education as
A condition of human survival. It is the means where by one generation transmits the wisdom, knowledge and experience which prepares the next generation for life’s duties and pleasure.

For one to embark on a project of improving the educational system in the case of Zambia , there is need for them to firstly understand what is already on the ground and basically find out what is missing or which areas needs improvements. If the author of this paper assumes the role of the ministry of education or permanent secretary in Zambia today, there are first priority things which need urgent attention in every respect.

Firstly, most schools in Zambia today have poor infrastructure from elementary level to tertiary level. At lower levels, there is even educational inequality between the rural and urban schools. The infrastructure and furniture especially for those in rural areas is extremely poor. Children are even sitting down on the ground in a grass thatched houses instead of having well established buildings and good furniture for conducive environment for learning. Being in such offices, infrastructure would be the first thing to worked on in both rural and urban schools.

Secondly, education is nothing without learning resources. The author would also work on resources for the education system. Procurement of books, maps, rulers, chalk and other learning resources would also increase.

A very straight-forward way is available to quickly and effectively improve American public schools. It is not expensive, and may even be less expensive than existing standard efforts. It involves operation of three physically separate parallel schools in a District. Attendance at specific schools would not depend on academic ability or knowledge, but on each individual student’s social compatibility. Absolutely no discrimination exists because each student has the choice available to attend any of them.
At individual pupil level, there should be more focus on individual progress than on test scores. Test scores are not the only way of seeing how much a student understands and how intelligent are they. I believe more challenging courses should be provided for increased mental stimulation because if students had more challenging work, it would force them to work harder in order to pass.

Teachers should be payed more but there should also be higher standards in order to become a teacher because teachers have very important jobs. It is up to them to encourage and teach us so that we reach the peak of our potential.

Parental involvement is necessary. It is up to parents to make sure their children understand the value of a good education. Too often parents do not stress the importance of education and no wonder their children don’t perform to the best of their abilities.

Curriculm revision would have to happen. Too often children are passed on to higher grade levels without learning the skills they need and so more time has to be dedicated towards reteaching skills that should’ve been learned.

Finally, stricter standards in order to pass to the next grade level should be set up. I believe 70% should be the lowest percentage a person could receive in order to pass and if the pupil receives grades lower than C minus in math and Language Arts, he or she should have to go to summer school until improvements are made.

There are many factors which can improve the standard of education in Zambia . Some of the factors which are thought to improve education are the, class size, books in library, teacher training, even money spent per student.
Universal primary education in Zambia is contingent on several factors, such as the existence of cost-effective schools, better curricula, and an awareness among parents, especially in rural areas, of the importance of education. However, the single most important factor in getting children to complete primary school is improving the structure of Zambia ‘s school system.
Currently, there exist many obstacles on the road to a smoothly functioning system. These include political interference, corruption, over-centralization, a lack of school autonomy, underdeveloped managerial capacity and poor information systems.
However, there are five institutional reforms that can help improve Zambia ‘s educational structure so that it can achieve the goal of universal primary education.
The first reform is the decentralization of decision-making, which improves education administration. Presently, Zambian educational system is highly centralized even though it is widely understood that basic education is better provided in a system that is administered at the district and village level.
A highly centralized system does not respond as effectively to local needs. The bureaucracy interferes with the flow of resources and information. It also means higher level administrators have less time to devote to important issues like program design, implementation, and monitoring.
This decentralization means governments must develop partnerships with communities, NGOs, and the private sector to delegate responsibility effectively in order to achieve universal primary education.
another step necessary for improving the system is greater autonomy for the schools. Currently, school principals have a limited decision-making capacity. In addition, schools do not have control over issues like curriculum, teacher appointment, discipline, and evaluation. There are virtually no opportunities for local staff development programs or resource mobilization.
By giving schools more independence, principals would have the authority to appoint personnel and determine crucial issues that affect the day-to-day affairs of schools. Principals, not upper-level bureaucrats, are in a better position to make these decisions since they deal with the daily realities of school life.
Another important reform is providing better support to, supervision of, and coordination of the school system at the district and provincial level. By making the district the key level for planning and management, state-level and central education bodies can focus more on policy-making, resource management and regulation.
One way to do this is by promoting good principals and teachers at the school level to enhance the institutional capacity of district level organizations. The lack of sufficient manpower is the most serious problem at the district and sub-district level.
Another necessary reform is to encourage decision-making be based on educational, not political, considerations. At present, politicians hand out teaching jobs as patronage appointments. Federal and provincial funds provided for education sometimes remain unused, especially in rural areas, since feudal landowners are opposed to educating “their” people.
The final necessary reform is to expand the information and research base of education in Zambia . Effective management and administration of the education system depends on the quality of the information system. Without reliable information, decision-makers cannot improve education policy and programs at the national, district and school levels.
One way of collecting reliable information about the state of education is to conduct standardized testing that measures student performance against national curriculum goals. These can be used to compare learning achievement across schools, districts and regions over time.

REFERENCES
Snelson, P. (1974). Education Development in Northern Rhodesia 1883
Lusaka : Kenneth Kaunda Foundation

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